Dengue and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever
What are the symptoms of
The principal symptoms of dengue are :
- high fever
- severe headache
- joint pains
- nausea and vomiting
- eye pain
Generally, younger children have a milder illness than older children and adults.
- CBC - WBC Count, Platelet Count, Haematocrit
- S. Protien, S. Albumin
- Liver Function Tests
- Urine - microscopic haematuria
- Dengue NS1 Antigen, IgG & IgM
Dengue (pronounced den' gee) is a disease caused by any one
of four closely related viruses (DEN-1, DEN-2,
DEN-3, or DEN-4). The viruses are transmitted to humans by
the bite of an infected mosquito. In the Western
Hemisphere, the Aedes aegypti mosquito is the most important
transmitter or vector of dengue viruses.
What is dengue haemorrhagic
DHF is a more severe form of dengue. It can be fatal if
unrecognised and not properly treated. DHF is caused
by infection with the same viruses that cause dengue. With
good medical management, mortality due to DHF can
be less than 1%
What are the Symptoms of Dengue hemorrhagic fever?
Dengue hemorrhagic fever is characterized by fever that lasts from 2 to 7 days,
general signs and symptoms that could occur with many other illnesses (e.g., nausea,
vomiting, abdominal pain, and headache). This stage is followed by hemorrhagic
manifestations, tendency to bruise easily or other types of skin haemorrhages,
bleeding nose or gums, and possibly internal bleeding. The smallest blood
(capillaries) become excessively permeable ("leaky"), allowing the fluid component
to escape from the blood vessels. This may lead to failure of the circulatory system
and shock, followed by death, if circulatory failure is not corrected.
How do dengue and dengue
hemorrhagic fever (DHF) spread?
Dengue is transmitted to people by the bite of an Aedes
mosquito that is infected with a dengue virus. The
mosquito becomes infected with dengue virus when it bites a
person who has dengue or DHF and after about a
week can transmit the virus while biting a healthy person.
Dengue cannot be spread directly from person to
What is the treatment for
There is no specific medication for treatment of a dengue
infection. Persons who think they have dengue
should use analgesics (pain relievers) with acetaminophen
and avoid those containing aspirin. They should
also rest, drink plenty of fluids, and consult a
Is there an effective
treatment for dengue hemorrhagic fever
As with dengue, there is no specific medication for DHF. It
can however be effectively treated by fluid
replacement therapy if an early clinical diagnosis is made.
Hospitalisation is frequently required in order
to adequately manage DHF.
What can be done to reduce
the risk of acquiring dengue?
There is no vaccine for preventing dengue. The best
preventive measure for residents living in areas infested
with Aedes aegypti is to eliminate the places where the
mosquito lays her eggs, primarily artificial
containers that hold water.
Items that collect rainwater
or are used to store water (for example, plastic
containers, big drums, buckets, or used automobile tires)
should be covered or properly discarded. Pet and
animal watering containers and vases with fresh flowers
should be emptied and scoured at least once a week.
This will eliminate the mosquito eggs and larvae and reduce
the number of mosquitoes present in these areas.
Tests for Dengue
CBC - WBC Count, Platelet Count,
S. Protien, S. Albumin
Dengue IgG & IgM.
LABORATORY TESTING FOR DENGUE
The tests for diagnosis of dengue infection are time dependent. All tests may be
negative in the early stages of the disease. However a low white blood cell count
and a low platelet count indicates a viral infection.
If the patient presents within the first 5 days after onset of symptoms, which is the
acute phase of the illness, a blood sample should be drawn immediately. Detection of
NS1 antigen during the febrile phase of a primary
infection may be greater.
If the patient presents six or more days after symptom onset, the blood sample should be
drawn as soon as possible. This sample should then be tested for serum IgM antibody.
Tests for dengue virus-specific antibodies, types IgG and IgM, can be useful in confirming a
diagnosis in the later stages of the infection. Both IgG and IgM are produced after 5-7 days.
The highest levels (titres) of IgM are detected following a primary infection, but IgM is also
produced in reinfection. IgM becomes undetectable 30-90 days after a primary infection, but
earlier following re-infections.
The serum IgG antibody, by contrast, remains detectable for over 60
years and, in the absence of
symptoms, is a useful indicator of past infection. After a primary infection IgG reaches peak levels
in the blood after 14-21 days. In subsequent re-infections, levels peak earlier and the titres are
Both IgG and IgM provide protective immunity to the infecting serotype of the virus. The laboratory test
for IgG and IgM antibodies can cross-react with other flaviviruses and may result in a false positive
after recent infections or vaccinations with yellow fever virus or Japanese encephalitis.
The detection of IgG alone is not considered diagnostic unless blood samples are collected 14 days apart and a
greater than fourfold increase in levels of specific IgG is detected. In a person with symptoms, the detection
IgM is considered diagnostic.
DENGUE TESTING AT DISHA PATHOLOGY
Dengue Day 1 Test is a rapid solid phase immuno-chromatographic test for
the qualitative detection of Dengue NS1
Antigen and differential detection of IgM and IgG antibodies to Dengue virus in Human serum/plasma. This test
intended as an aid in the earlier diagnosis of Dengue infection & presumptive diagnosis between primary and
secondary Dengue infection.
- Used for detecting dengue infection from day 1 using NS1 Antigen & differential detection of IgM & IgG
- Diagnosis of both Primary & Secondary Infection.
- Detects all 4 serotypes of Dengue virus
- Highly Sensitive & Highly Specific
Contact Us at +91 22 66949876 / 98211 41024 for any
test requirement or any query related to our pathology lab