The principal symptoms of dengue are :
Generally, younger children have a milder illness than older children and adults.
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Dengue (pronounced den' gee) is a disease caused by any one of four closely related viruses (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, or DEN-4). The viruses are transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito. In the Western Hemisphere, the Aedes aegypti mosquito is the most important transmitter or vector of dengue viruses.
DHF is a more severe form of dengue. It can be fatal if unrecognised and not properly treated. DHF is caused by infection with the same viruses that cause dengue. With good medical management, mortality due to DHF can be less than 1%
Dengue hemorrhagic fever is characterized by fever that lasts from 2 to 7 days, with general signs and symptoms that could occur with many other illnesses (e.g., nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and headache). This stage is followed by hemorrhagic manifestations, tendency to bruise easily or other types of skin haemorrhages, bleeding nose or gums, and possibly internal bleeding. The smallest blood vessels (capillaries) become excessively permeable ("leaky"), allowing the fluid component to escape from the blood vessels. This may lead to failure of the circulatory system and shock, followed by death, if circulatory failure is not corrected.
Dengue is transmitted to people by the bite of an Aedes mosquito that is infected with a dengue virus. The mosquito becomes infected with dengue virus when it bites a person who has dengue or DHF and after about a week can transmit the virus while biting a healthy person. Dengue cannot be spread directly from person to person.
There is no specific medication for treatment of a dengue infection. Persons who think they have dengue should use analgesics (pain relievers) with acetaminophen and avoid those containing aspirin. They should also rest, drink plenty of fluids, and consult a physician.
As with dengue, there is no specific medication for DHF. It can however be effectively treated by fluid replacement therapy if an early clinical diagnosis is made. Hospitalisation is frequently required in order to adequately manage DHF.
There is no vaccine for preventing dengue. The best
preventive measure for residents living in areas infested
with Aedes aegypti is to eliminate the places where the
mosquito lays her eggs, primarily artificial
containers that hold water.
Items that collect rainwater or are used to store water (for example, plastic containers, big drums, buckets, or used automobile tires) should be covered or properly discarded. Pet and animal watering containers and vases with fresh flowers should be emptied and scoured at least once a week. This will eliminate the mosquito eggs and larvae and reduce the number of mosquitoes present in these areas.
CBC - WBC Count, Platelet Count,
S. Protien, S. Albumin
Liver Function Tests
Urine - microscopic haematuria
Dengue IgG & IgM.
The tests for diagnosis of dengue infection are time dependent. All tests may be negative in the early stages of the disease. However a low white blood cell count and a low platelet count indicates a viral infection.
If the patient presents within the first 5 days after onset of symptoms, which is the acute phase of the illness, a blood sample should be drawn immediately. Detection of NS1 antigen during the febrile phase of a primary infection may be greater.
If the patient presents six or more days after symptom onset, the blood sample should be drawn as soon as possible. This sample should then be tested for serum IgM antibody.
Tests for dengue virus-specific antibodies, types IgG and IgM, can be useful in confirming a diagnosis in the later stages of the infection. Both IgG and IgM are produced after 5-7 days. The highest levels (titres) of IgM are detected following a primary infection, but IgM is also produced in reinfection. IgM becomes undetectable 30-90 days after a primary infection, but earlier following re-infections.
The serum IgG antibody, by contrast, remains detectable for over 60 years and, in the absence of symptoms, is a useful indicator of past infection. After a primary infection IgG reaches peak levels in the blood after 14-21 days. In subsequent re-infections, levels peak earlier and the titres are usually higher.
Both IgG and IgM provide protective immunity to the infecting serotype of the virus. The laboratory test for IgG and IgM antibodies can cross-react with other flaviviruses and may result in a false positive after recent infections or vaccinations with yellow fever virus or Japanese encephalitis.
The detection of IgG alone is not considered diagnostic unless blood samples are collected 14 days apart and a greater than fourfold increase in levels of specific IgG is detected. In a person with symptoms, the detection of IgM is considered diagnostic.
Dengue Day 1 Test is a rapid solid phase immuno-chromatographic test for the qualitative detection of Dengue NS1 Antigen and differential detection of IgM and IgG antibodies to Dengue virus in Human serum/plasma. This test iis intended as an aid in the earlier diagnosis of Dengue infection & presumptive diagnosis between primary and secondary Dengue infection.